The solar panel system is a power generation system of photovoltaic modules. It includes mainly includes solar panels, batteries, controllers, and inverters. Other auxiliary equipment includes PV brackets, Solar cables, etc. In addition, depending on the system’s capacity, it may be necessary to configure convergence boxes, AC and DC distribution cabinets, and other equipment.
Solar panels (also called solar modules) are the core part of a solar power system and the most essential part of a solar power system.
Solar cells, also known as “solar chips” or “photovoltaic cells, ” are thin sheets of optoelectronics semiconductors that directly generate electricity. A single solar cell cannot be used directly as a power source. ZMS solar photovoltaic system products can be widely used in homes, ranches, base station projects, and other electricity consumption.
Classification of Solar Panels
Monocrystalline Solar Panels
Monocrystalline solar panels are modules made of high conversion efficiency monocrystalline silicon cells in different series and parallel arrays.
ZMS monocrystalline solar panels are rugged and have a life expectancy of up to 20 years. These solar panels offer higher conversion efficiency than polycrystalline solar panels and are more cost-effective to produce.
- 1. Glass: ultra-white fabric tempered glass, thickness 3.2mm, in the wavelength range of the solar cell spectral response (320-1100nm) light transmission rate of 91% or more. It is resistant to ultraviolet radiation and the light transmission rate does not decrease. Tempered glass components can withstand the impact of a 25mm diameter puck at a speed of 23m/s.
- 2. EVA: High-quality EVA film layer with a thickness of 0. 5mm is used as the sealing agent of the solar cell and the connecting agent between glass and TPT. It has high light transmittance and anti-aging ability.
Performance standards of EVA film for solar cell encapsulation after curing
Light transmittance greater than 90%; cross-linking degree greater than 65-85%; peel strength (N/cm), glass / adhesive film greater than 30. TPT / adhesive film greater than 15. temperature resistance: high temperature 85 ℃, low temperature -40 ℃.
- 3. TPT: the back side of the solar cell, aging resistance, corrosion resistance, UV radiation resistance, impermeability, and other basic requirements.
- 4. Frame: The aluminum alloy frame used has high strength and strong resistance to mechanical impact.
Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Panels
Polycrystalline solar panels are made of polycrystalline solar cells arranged in different arrays to form photovoltaic modules of different powers to meet the electricity needs of different appliances.
When it comes to production costs, polycrystalline solar panels are somewhat cheaper than monocrystalline solar panels. They have a lower total production cost and save on electricity consumption. zms polycrystalline solar panels are cheaper than monocrystalline panels. These 500W solar panels are also the most widely used PV modules.
- 1. Tempered glass Its role is to protect the main body of power generation (such as cells), the selection of light transmission is required. 1.1. light transmission must be high (generally 91% or more). 1.2. ultra-white tempering treatment.
- 2. EVA is used to bond and fix the tempered glass and power generation body (such as cells), the merits of transparent EVA material directly affect the life of the module. EVA exposed to air is prone to aging and yellowing, which affects the light transmission of the module, thus affecting the quality of the module’s power generation. In addition to the quality of EVA itself, the impact of the lamination process on the component manufacturers is also very large. Such as EVA adhesive degree is not up to standard, EVA and tempered glass, and backplane bonding strength is not enough, which will cause early aging of EVA, affecting the life of the module.
- 3. The main role of the cell is to generate electricity, the main body of the power generation market is the mainstream of crystalline silicon solar cells, and thin-film solar cells. Both have advantages and disadvantages for crystalline silicon solar cells, equipment costs are relatively low, but the consumption and cell costs are very high, and high photoelectric conversion efficiency. In outdoor sunlight power generation is more suitable for thin film solar cells, with relatively high equipment costs, but consumption and battery costs are very low, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency is relatively more crystalline silicon cells by more than half, but the low light effect is very good, in ordinary light can also generate electricity, such as the calculator on the solar cells.
- 4. EVA’s role as above, the main bonding package power generation body and backplane.
- 5. backsheet role, sealing, insulation, waterproof (generally used TPT, TPE, and other materials must be resistant to aging, most component manufacturers have a warranty of 25 years, tempered glass, and aluminum alloy are generally no problem, the key is in the backplane and silicone whether it can meet the requirements.
- 6. Aluminum alloy protects the laminate and plays a certain sealing, and support role.
- 7. Junction box protects the entire power generation system, and plays the role of the current transfer station, if the component short circuit junction box automatically disconnects the short-circuiting battery string to prevent burning the entire system junction box in the most critical is the choice of the diode, according to the type of cell in the component different, corresponding to the diode is not the same.
- 8. Silicone sealing role used to seal the components and aluminum alloy frame, components, and junction box junction some companies use double-sided tape, and foam to replace silicone, China’s domestic common use of silicone, the process are simple, convenient, and easy to operate, and the cost is very low.
Classification of Communication Cables by Usage
The photoelectric conversion efficiency of monocrystalline silicon solar panels is about 15%, and the highest reaches 24%. This is the highest photoelectric conversion efficiency among all kinds of solar panels.
Because monocrystalline silicon is generally encapsulated with tempered glass and waterproof resin, it is robust and durable, with a service life of 15 years in general and up to 25 years.
The production process of polycrystalline silicon solar panels is similar to that of monocrystalline silicon solar panels, but the photoelectric conversion efficiency of polycrystalline silicon solar panels is much lower.
Its photoelectric conversion efficiency is about 12% (July 1, 2004, Sharp Japan listed the world’s highest efficiency polycrystalline silicon solar panels with 14.8% efficiency).
In terms of production cost, it is cheaper than monocrystalline silicon solar panels, is easy to manufacture materials, and saves electricity consumption, the total production cost is lower, so it has been developed in large quantities.
Amorphous silicon solar panel is a new type of thin-film solar panel that appeared in 1976. It is completely different from monocrystalline silicon and polycrystalline silicon solar panels, the process is greatly simplified, silicon material consumption is very little, and electricity consumption is much lower.
Its main advantage is that it can generate electricity even in low-light conditions. However, the main problem of amorphous silicon solar panels is the low photoelectric conversion efficiency, the international advanced level of about 10%, and is not stable enough, with the extension of time, its conversion efficiency decay.
The Material Composition Of Solar Panels
Most bulk silicon PV modules consist of a transparent surface, an encapsulant, a backside, and a frame around the outer edge. In most modules, the top surface is glass, the encapsulant is EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate), the backside is PET, this is only for glass solar panels, the surface of flexible modules may be ETFE or PET, and the backside of SMD modules is PCB.
Photovoltaic Module Surface Material
The surface of the front of the PV module must have a high light transmission in the wavelength range that can be used by the solar cells in the PV module.
For silicon solar cells, the top surface must have a high transmittance in the wavelength range of 350 nm to 1200 nm. In addition, the reflection from the front surface should be low.
Although in theory this reflection can be reduced by applying an anti-reflection coating to the top surface, in practice these coatings are not strong enough to withstand the conditions of use of most PV systems.
Another technique to reduce reflections is to “roughen” or texturize the surface. However, in this case, dust and dirt are more likely to adhere to the top surface and are less likely to be dispersed by wind or rain.
As a result, these components are not “self-cleaning” and the benefits of reduced reflection are quickly offset by losses due to increased dirt on the top surface.
In addition to reflection and transmission properties, the surface material should be impervious to water, should have good impact resistance, should remain stable under prolonged UV exposure, and should have low thermal resistivity.
Water or water vapor entering the PV module will corrode the metal contacts and interconnects, thus significantly reducing the lifetime of the PV module.
In most modules, the front surface is used to provide mechanical strength and stiffness, so the surface or rear surface must be mechanically stiff to support the solar cells and wiring.
There are several options for surface materials, including acrylic, polymer, and glass. Tempered, low-iron content glass is the most commonly used because it is low cost, strong, stable, highly transparent, impervious to water and gases, and has good self-cleaning properties.
Photovoltaic Module Encapsulants
Encapsulants are used to provide adhesion between the top surface and the rear surface of solar cells and photovoltaic modules. The encapsulant should be stable under high temperatures and high UV exposure.
It should also be optically transparent and should have a low thermal resistance.
EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) is the most commonly used encapsulant. EVA is in the form of a thin sheet that is inserted between the solar cell sheet and the top and back surfaces. This interlayer is then heated to over one hundred degrees, causing the EVA to polymerize and bond the module together.
PV Module Rear Surface
The main characteristic of the rear surface of a PV module is that it must have low thermal resistance and must be protected from the ingress of water or water vapor.
In most modules, a thin polymer sheet is used for the rear surface Some PV modules, called bifacial modules, are designed to receive light from the front or back of the solar cell. In bifacial modules, both the front and the rear must be optically transparent.
Photovoltaic Module Frame
The final structural component of a solar panel is the bezel or frame of the solar panel. Conventional PV module frames are usually made of aluminum. The frame structure should be free of bumps that could cause water, dust or other substances to be trapped.
Common Applications Of Solar Panels
1. User solar power supply.
(1) small power supply ranging from 10-100W, for remote areas without electricity such as plateaus, islands, pastoral areas, border guard posts, and other military and civilian life with electricity, such as lighting, TV, recorders, etc.
(2) 3-5KW family rooftop grid-connected power generation system
(3) Photovoltaic water pump: to solve the deep water well drinking and irrigation in areas without electricity.
2. Transportation field: such as beacon light, traffic/railway signal light, traffic warning/sign light, Yuxiang street light, high altitude obstacle light, highway/railway wireless telephone booth, unattended road shift power supply, etc.
3. Communication/communication field: solar unattended microwave relay station, optical cable maintenance station, broadcasting/communication/paging power supply system. Rural carrier phone photovoltaic system, small communication machine, GPS power supply for soldiers, etc.
4. Oil, marine, and meteorological field: solar power supply system for cathodic protection of oil pipelines and reservoir gates, life, and emergency power supply for oil drilling platforms, marine detection equipment, meteorological/hydrological observation equipment, etc.
5. Home lighting power supply: such as garden lights, street lights, portable lights, camping lights, hiking lights, fishing lights, black lights, rubber cutting lights, energy-saving lights, etc.
6. Photovoltaic power station: 10KW-50MW independent photovoltaic power station, scenery (firewood) complementary power station, various large parking plant charging stations, etc.
7. Solar building: the combination of solar power generation and building materials, making the future of large buildings achieve power self-sufficiency, is a major future development direction.
8. Other areas include
(1) Supporting automobiles: solar cars/electric vehicles, battery charging equipment, automobile air conditioners, ventilation fans, cold drink boxes, etc.
(2) solar hydrogen plus fuel cells regenerative power generation system.
(3) Desalination equipment power supply.
(4) Satellites, spacecraft, space solar power stations, etc.
Service of ZMS Company
Over Productions Service
ZMS has a wide range of cable and wire products for you to choose from. We will provide caring services and professional project solutions for everyone who needs them.
Quality Certification Services
ZMS cable products are manufactured according to GB, IEC, BS, NFC, ASTM, DIN, and other international standards. Our technical team can customize cable products that meet your requirements according to your need.
Profession Customer Service
ZMS provide free professional consulting services to provide you with one-stop project solution services and rapid product delivery solutions.
Delivery And Shipping Services
While ZMS provides high-quality cables, we also provide good delivery solutions. While ensuring the safe delivery of products, we provide the best packaging and transportation solutions, greatly reducing customers’ transportation costs.
Packaging of ZMS
ZMS cables packaging are provided in the form of wooden reels, corrugated boxes and coils. The cable ends are sealed with BOPP self-adhesive tape and a non-hygroscopic sealing cap to protect the cable ends from moisture. We can print the required marks on the outside of the barrel with waterproof material according to customer requirements.